Influence of Force Deformation of CNC Lathe Process System on Machining Quality
(1) Influence of the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force The stiffness of the process system is not only affected by the stiffness of each component, but also changes with the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force. The CNC lathe actually bends and deforms the workpiece due to the change of the position of the action point of the cutting force, which leads to the shape error of the workpiece and affects the processing quality of the workpiece.
(2) Influence of cutting force change During turning, uneven machining allowance or uneven material hardness will cause changes in cutting force and force deformation of the process system, resulting in the phenomenon of “error re-image”. For example, when a CNC lathe is turning a blank hole with a large amount of eccentricity, the machining allowance changes more or less during each revolution of the workpiece. When the machining allowance is large, the cutting force becomes larger, and the displacement of the tool “leaving the knife” is also large; when the turning is on the side with a small allowance, the cutting force and the displacement of the tool are small. Therefore, the machined surface has the same offset direction as the blank fL, and the eccentricity error is much smaller. The CNC lathe regards this error as a “re-image” of the initial error of the surface to be machined on the machined surface. The lower the cutting degree of the CNC lathe process system, the more severe the “re-image” phenomenon of the error.
(3) Machining the interrupted surface also reduces the machining quality. When turning the surface that has been milled or drilled, interrupted cutting will occur. When the tool enters the “neutral position”, the cutting force and the phenomenon of “letting the knife” disappear. At this time, when the tool is cutting the workpiece, it will have a great impact, and a large amount of back-engagement will appear. The edge of the workpiece has a slump angle, which seriously affects the processing quality.
(4) Influence of tool passivation After the blade is worn, the cutting edge is passivated and affects the processing quality.
1) The cutting edge is worn, which changes the machining size and affects the machining accuracy.
2) The geometric parameters of the CNC lathe tool are changed to increase the cutting force. If the rigidity of the process system is low, the shape accuracy of the workpiece will be affected.
3) The passivated cutting edge will produce the phenomenon of “letting the knife” during the feeding, which will make the processing size unstable.
Other forces of CNC lathes, such as clamping force, transmission force, gravity and inertial force, also have varying degrees of influence on the machining quality.
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