Samsung has completely shut down the Chinese mobile phone factory. Is Samsung, the world’s number one seller, really lost to China?

Samsung has completely shut down the Chinese mobile phone factory. Is Samsung, the world’s number one seller, really lost to China?

At the beginning of October, for the Chinese people, everyone is celebrating the peaceful atmosphere of the National Day, but for Samsung’s Chinese factory, it is busy clearing and closing. On October 2, Samsung’s last mobile phone factory in China closed. Why did the first Samsung mobile phone leave China?

1. The last Samsung factory in China

On October 2, according to Reuters, Samsung Electronics said that the company had stopped producing mobile phone products in China due to increasingly fierce competition from domestic competitors in China. This also means that Samsung’s last factory in China, located in Huizhou, Guangdong, has also shut down.

On Sina Weibo, some netizens shared a video of resignation. The video shows that the female employee who has worked for more than 10 years, after completing the signing procedures, also received a Samsung Galaxy S10+ as a souvenir.

“In the past 27 years since entering China, Samsung has followed the industry guidance of the Chinese government and adjusted its industrial layout in a timely manner to adapt to the rapid development and changes of the Chinese market. The adjustment of the Huizhou factory this time is a normal industrial adjustment; Samsung’s industrial layout in China has transformed into The high-end manufacturing industry in line with the direction of the Chinese government has continued to invest in high-end industries in China in the past six years, with an amount exceeding US$20 billion, which is much higher than the amount of industrial adjustments, and will continue to invest in high-end industries in China in the future.” This is Samsung Statement to the media.

The Huizhou factory is of great significance to Samsung, and it is one of its first factories in China. According to the data of Qixinbao, the Huizhou Samsung factory located in Chenjiang Town, Huicheng District, Huizhou City was established in 1992 and officially put into operation in 1993. It is the main production base of Samsung in China. The factory covers an area of ​​120,000 square meters, with a construction area of ​​35,000 square meters. In 2006, it began to introduce mobile phone production. It has 40 GSM/CDMA/3G mobile phone production lines and more than 30 SMD fully automated production lines. In June 2019, the factory’s smartphone production capacity was about 400,000 units per month. With the closure of the Huizhou factory, Samsung’s mobile phone production in China has come to an end.

But, can we say that Samsung phones are dead? From the perspective of the Chinese market, Samsung is indeed doing very poorly. According to the “Beijing Daily” report, with the sharp drop in sales of Samsung mobile phones in the Chinese domestic market, it has been unable to provide enough orders for Chinese factories, and the ever-increasing manpower Such costs have also exacerbated the difficult situation of Chinese factories. Data show that in the second quarter of 2019, Samsung’s mobile phone market share in China was 1%, and its shipment volume was 800,000 units. For comparison, Huawei shipped 35.2 million units during the same period.

Once we look at this data on a global scale, things don’t seem so simple. Taking the data in the second quarter of 2019 as an example, Samsung’s sales volume was 76.3 million units, Huawei’s sales volume was 58.7 million units, and Apple’s sales volume was 38 million units. Samsung is still the global leader. The number one mobile phone giant, but for the Chinese market, Samsung has lost its proper position. So, why did Samsung leave China, and how should we view Samsung’s departure?

Second, how should we view Samsung’s departure?

When the Samsung China factory was closed, we saw a lot of media saying that Samsung left as a loser, but what we saw was not that simple. We saw that Samsung’s departure was not trivial It is chaotic, and there is no phenomenon of employees asking for salary. Everything seems to be in order. We can even sort out the context of Samsung’s departure step by step. From March this year, the Huizhou factory stopped recruiting, and began to lay off workers in June this year. Afterwards, the Samsung factory repeatedly released the recruitment facts of BYD, TCL and other electronics companies through the platform of the official WeChat public account, and held special presentations for employees to encourage them to find their next job. On October 2, when the Samsung factory was closed, the employees basically received compensation. On the basis of the settlement of wages, mobile phone benefits were paid to all employees. Samsung A8 under ten years; more than ten years S10+, employees with more than 20 years of experience will add a Samsung Note10 on the basis of S10+, and each will be issued a watch.

All these signs indicate that Samsung’s departure is not a rout, but an orderly retreat, so what is the purpose of Samsung’s retreat?

First of all, it is time for Samsung to go, the general trend of industrial transfer. If we carefully study Samsung’s development history, we will find that the most important reason why Samsung chose China to build a factory is that in the 1990s, China’s reform and opening up, the market economy system was fully established, and the Chinese labor force at that time , land is very cheap, at this time to build a factory can fully enjoy the advantages of China’s preferential policies, demographic dividends, and cheap land. South Korea mainland transferred to China. However, nearly 30 years have passed, and China’s economy has developed by leaps and bounds, and China’s economic level has advanced by leaps and bounds. Under such circumstances, the demographic dividend of China’s labor force is disappearing, and China’s production costs are also increasing. The trend of transformation is also very obvious. If Samsung stays in China, the cost will also rise accordingly. Therefore, Samsung chose to leave China and go to Southeast Asian and South Asian countries such as Vietnam and India, which are cheaper. According to data, as of April last year, Samsung’s The total investment in Vietnam is as high as 17.3 billion US dollars, and 8 manufacturing plants have been built locally, mainly producing smartphones and Electronic parts. Last year, Samsung invested 4.7 billion yuan in India to build the world’s largest mobile phone factory.

Secondly, Samsung is really a fiasco in China’s mobile phone market. If cost advantages such as manufacturing demographic dividends are disappearing, Samsung’s consumer market recession is also an important reason for Samsung’s departure. In addition to low costs, China is also the world’s largest consumer market. China, which has the world’s largest population base, is worthy It is called the treasure land of the mobile phone market, but this treasure land is a blessed land for other mobile phone brands, not Samsung. According to data from a number of survey agencies, Samsung’s mobile phone market share in China in 2018 was 0.8%, which is almost negligible. In the first quarter of this year, Samsung’s mobile phone market share in China was 1.1%, and its shipments exceeded 1 million units. With the old rival Apple and the new rival Huawei, in the mid-to-low-end mobile phone market, it has also encountered siege from Xiaomi, OPPO, and VIVO. With the rise of domestic mobile phones in China, Samsung has gradually lost its previous advantages and become a Second-tier or even third-tier mobile phone brands. Because, without the Chinese market, it becomes meaningless to produce mobile phones in China.

Third, the departure of Samsung mobile phones does not mean the departure of Samsung. It is true that Samsung closed its mobile phone factory in China, but friends who know the Samsung Group know that Samsung does not only have a product line of mobile phones, but a diversified and global industrial group. Samsung seems to be deploying itself in China. For the higher-end electronics industry, public data shows that Samsung’s new investment in China from 2013 to 2018 was 22.8 billion US dollars (equivalent to about 162.4 billion yuan). Previously, according to the disclosure of Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Zone, Samsung is accelerating the construction of new projects such as MLCC factories (multilayer ceramic capacitors) and power battery production lines. And Samsung’s semiconductor factory in Xi’an is also under construction in full swing. It is reported that the total investment of this factory exceeds 114 billion yuan. Many signs are showing that for Samsung, China is changing from a labor factory at the bottom of the smiling curve to a region that undertakes the transfer of Samsung’s high-end manufacturing industry. If this trend has formed, it means that China’s industrial transformation and upgrading is playing a positive role. As a result, China’s attractiveness to the world’s high-end manufacturing industry is constantly increasing.

We cannot simply see Samsung’s closing and leaving, let alone regard Samsung as a failure. There are more deep meanings behind Samsung’s departure. Do you understand these deep reasons?

Text/Jiang Han Vision

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Improve Hot Swap Performance and Save Design Time with the LTC4217

The LTC4217 hot swap controller turns the board’s supply voltage on and off in a controlled manner, allowing the board to be safely inserted and removed from a live backplane. Not surprisingly, this is usually what hot-swap controllers do, but the LTC4217 has a feature that makes it superior to other hot-swap controllers. It simplifies the design of hot-swap systems by integrating the controller, MOSFET, and sense resistor into a single IC.

By David Soo

The LTC4217 hot swap controller turns the board’s supply voltage on and off in a controlled manner, allowing the board to be safely inserted and removed from a live backplane. Not surprisingly, this is usually what hot-swap controllers do, but the LTC4217 has a feature that makes it superior to other hot-swap controllers. It simplifies the design of hot-swap systems by integrating the controller, MOSFET, and sense resistor into a single IC. This saves a lot of design time that would otherwise be spent selecting the best controller/MOSFET combination, setting the current limit, and carefully designing the layout to protect the MOSFETs from excessive power dissipation.

A significant advantage of integrated solutions over discrete solutions is that the current limit accuracy is well known. In a discrete solution, the overall accuracy of the current limit is a function of the tolerance of adding contributing components, whereas in the LTC4217 it shows up as a single 2A specification.

The integrated solution also simplifies layout issues by optimizing the MOSFET and sense resistor connections. Inrush current, current limit threshold and timeout can be set to default values ​​without external components or easily adjusted using resistors and capacitors to better suit various applications. The device is capable of covering a wide voltage range from 2.9V to 26.5V and includes a temperature and current monitor. The MOSFETs are kept in the safe operating area (SOA) by using time-limited foldback current limiting and over-temperature protection.

The LTC4217 can be easily applied in its basic configuration, or set up with a few additional external components for applications with special requirements.

monitor FET

The LTC4217 features MOSFET current and temperature monitoring. The current monitor outputs a current proportional to the MOSFET current while providing a voltage proportional to the MOSFET temperature. This allows external circuitry to predict possible failures and shut down the system.

The current in the MOSFET passes through the sense resistor, the voltage across the sense resistor is converted to a current, and the current is sourced out of the I mon pin. The gain from I starts at 50µA mon for a 1A MOSFET current. The output current can be converted to a voltage using an external resistor to drive a comparator or ADC. The voltage compliance of the I mon pin goes from 0V to (INTV CC C 0.7V).

The MOSFET temperature scales linearly with the voltage on I to set the pin, as shown in Figure 1. At room temperature, the open circuit voltage on this pin is 0.63V. In addition, thermal shutdown circuitry turns off the MOSFET when the controller die temperature exceeds 145°C, and turns on again when the temperature drops to 125°C.

Figure 1. V Exeter vs. Temperature

12V application

Figure 2 shows the LTC12-12 in a 4217V hot-swap application with default settings. The only external component required is the capacitor CC pin on the INTV. Current limit, inrush current control and protection timers are internally programmed to protect the integrated MOSFETs. The input voltage monitor is preset to a 12V supply, using the internal resistor divider DD supply from V to drive the UV and OV pins. UV conditions occur when VDD is below 9.23V; when VDD exceeds 15.05V.

Figure 2.12V, 1.5A card resident application

The LTC4217 turns the supply voltage to the board on and off in a controlled manner, allowing the board to be safely inserted and removed from a live backplane. Several conditions must be met before the internal MOSFET turns on. The first is that the VDD supply exceeds its 2.73V undervoltage lockout level and the internally generated INTV CC crosses 2.65V. Next, the UV and OV pins must indicate that the input power is within acceptable limits. These conditions must be met for a duration of 100ms to ensure that any contact bounce during insertion is over.

The MOSFET is then turned on with a controlled 0.3V/ms gate ramp, as shown in Figure 3. The voltage ramp of the output capacitor follows the slope of the gate ramp, setting the supply inrush current as:

Figure 3. Power On

To further reduce inrush current, use a shallower voltage ramp than the default 3.1V/ms by adding a ramp capacitor (with a 0k series resistor) from gate to ground.

When OUT is close to VDD power, the power good indicator (PG) becomes active. Power good is defined as the voltage on the FB pin exceeding 1.235V while the GATE pin is high. The FB pin monitors the output voltage through an internal resistor divider at the OUT pin. Once the OUT voltage exceeds the 10.5V threshold and the gate-to-output voltage exceeds 4.2V, the PG pin stops pulling low, indicating a good power supply. Once OUT reaches the VDD supply, the gate ramps until it clamps at 6.15V above the output.

The LTC4217 features an adjustable current limit with foldback for protection against short circuits or overload currents. The default current limit is 2A and can be adjusted for lower currents by placing a resistor between the ISET pin and ground. To prevent excessive power dissipation in the switch during active current limiting, the available current is reduced according to the output voltage sensed at the FB pin, as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Current Limit Threshold Foldback

An overcurrent fault occurs when the current limiting circuit is engaged for longer than the delay set by the timer. Binding the timer pin to cc will configure the device to use a preset 2ms overcurrent timeout and 100ms cooldown. After cooling for 100ms, the switch is allowed to turn on again if the overcurrent fault has cleared. Put the UV pin below 0.6V, then turn it up to clear the fault. Connecting the FLT pin to the UV pin allows the device to clear itself and turn on again after cooling down for 100ms.

Programmable function

The LTC5 application shown in Figure 4217 demonstrates the adjustable feature.

Figure 5.0.8A, 12V card resident application

The UV and OV resistor dividers set the undervoltage and overvoltage shutdown thresholds, while the FB divider determines the power-good trip point. An RC network on the GATE pin reduces the gate ramp from the default 0.24V/ms to 0.3V/ms to reduce inrush current.

The 20k I setting resistor forms a resistive divider with the internal 20K resistor to reduce the current limit threshold (before foldback) to half of the original threshold of the 1A current limit. The graph in Figure 6 shows that the current limit threshold is set by resistors for various I.

Figure 6. Current Limit Adjustment

As in the previous application, the UV and FLT signals are connected together so that the device automatically retries turning on after turning off to resolve overcurrent faults.

This example places a 20k resistor across the I mon pin to set the gain of the current monitor output to 1V per amp of MOSFET current.

Instead of connecting the timer pin to the INTV CC pin for a default 2ms overcurrent timeout, a 0.47µF external capacitor is used to set the 5.7ms timeout. During an overcurrent event, the external timing capacitor charges with a 100µA pull-up current. If the voltage across the capacitor reaches the 1.2V threshold, the MOSFET turns off. The formula for setting the timing capacitor value is as follows:

The LTC4217 discharges the timing capacitor when the MOSFET is cool. When the capacitor voltage reaches 0.2V, an internal 100ms timer is started. After this cool-down period, the fault is cleared (when using auto-retry) and the MOSFET is allowed to turn on again.

It is important to consider the safe operating area of ​​the MOSFET when extending the breaker timeout beyond 2ms. The SOA plot of the MOSFET used in the LTC4217 is shown in Figure 7. The worst power dissipation occurs when the voltage versus current curve for the foldback current limit is at its maximum. This happens when the current is 1A and the voltage is half of 12V or 6V (see Figure 4, FB pin at 0.7V). In this case, the power is 6W, which determines a maximum time of 100ms (Figure 7, at 6V and 1A).

Figure 7. FET single ion alkalinity fluctuation curve

in conclusion

The primary role of the LTC4217 is to control hot insertion and provide Electronic circuit breaker functionality. Additionally, the device includes protection for the MOSFETs with a focus on SOA compliance, thermal protection, and precise 2A current limit. It is also suitable for various applications due to adjustable inrush current, overcurrent fault timer and current limit threshold. The high level of integration makes the LTC4217 easy to use and versatile.

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MediaTek let OPPO fall, will vivo also be cheated by it?

It is reported that MediaTek upgraded Dimensity 1000+ to Dimensity 1000+ when the Dimensity 1000 failed to achieve the expected success (only one mobile phone company, OPPO, adopted it, and adopted the down-frequency version of Dimensity 1000L), which will be launched by vivo. OPPO, which supports MediaTek, has lost its position in the top five in the world, so will vivo, which has just entered the top five in the world, also fall due to MediaTek?

In the second quarter of 2016, MediaTek reached its peak. It surpassed Qualcomm for the first time in China’s mobile phone chip market to become the leader in China’s mobile phone chip market. However, because it failed to keep up with China Mobile (China Mobile requires mobile phone chip companies to In October, it supported LTE Cat7 technology, and MediaTek only supported the highest LTE Cat6 technology. Since China Mobile occupies more than 60% of the Chinese mobile phone market and has a decisive influence on the mobile phone market, Chinese mobile phone companies have abandoned MediaTek chips, and MediaTek has declined. .

Since then, although MediaTek has been trying to get out of the predicament, it has not been able to do so since then. In June 2019, China issued 5G licenses to the three major operators. MediaTek felt that its opportunity had come. It claimed that it would release the world’s first 5G mobile phone SOC chip. However, the fact is that it did not come up with commercially available high-end chips until the end of 2019. Chip Dimensity 1000, and Huawei HiSilicon is the first company in the world to launch a commercial 5G mobile phone SOC chip.

At that time, MediaTek emphasized that Dimensity 1000 has many advantages, and its processor performance is the world’s first. Dimensity 1000 also won the world’s first support for 5G dual-carrier aggregation, the world’s first support for 5G dual-card dual-standby technology, and many other global firsts. One, it seems to be determined to regain its glory in the 5G mobile phone chip market, because it is so confident in this chip that it has set the price of this chip at $70.

However, the reality is cruel. In the end, except for OPPO, no other mobile phone company in China adopted MediaTek’s Dimensity 1000, but OPPO, which insisted on using Dimensity 1000, fell.

Reno3, the key mobile phone launched by OPPO at that time, used the Dimensity 1000L chip (the down-frequency version of the Dimensity 1000). It seems that OPPO lacked confidence in the Dimensity 1000. The high-end Reno3 Pro uses the Snapdragon 765G, which is positioned as a mid-range chip by Qualcomm.

In fact, the performance of the Snapdragon 765G is indeed inferior to that of the Dimensity 1000L, but OPPO’s approach has caused confusion among consumers. Why is the performance of the lower-priced Reno3 stronger and the performance of the higher-priced Reno3 Pro weaker? It has affected the sales of Reno3 to a certain extent. This also caused OPPO to fall out of the top five in the global smartphone market in the first quarter of this year, while vivo replaced OPPO and ranked among the top five in the world.

Vivo, which has just entered the top five in the world, should treat MediaTek with caution. However, it seems to be full of confidence in itself. Just after ranking among the top five in the world, it announced that it will launch MediaTek’s Dimensity 1000+ chip. This may not be a good thing.

It has always been difficult for MediaTek to gain a foothold in the high-end chip market because it started as a copycat mobile phone and left a deep imprint on itself, causing consumers to never recognize the MediaTek brand. Therefore, Chinese mobile phone companies generally use MediaTek chips for low-end mobile phones. There are MediaTek chips used in high-end mobile phones.

Although MediaTek’s Dimensity 1000 has many advantages, it also has a weakness, that is, the shooting performance is not strong. Nowadays, the camera performance has become the most important technology for smartphones, which has caused Dimensity 1000 to be criticized by consumers. One of the reasons for the poor sales of OPPO Reno3. Now that vivo is determined to take over OPPO and support MediaTek, using Dimensity 1000+, I am afraid that consumers will not be able to accept it. It is likely that the sales of vivo’s mobile phones using this chip will not be as expected. Will it not be in the top five positions in the world because of this? And lose?

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Analysis of the Impact of COVID-19 on Automation and Manufacturing and Market Opportunities

At present, the new type of coronavirus has entered an “outbreak period”, and people across the country are working together to fight against the virus.

During the special period, the country extended the Spring Festival holiday, and traffic control was implemented in major cities, and medical supplies were in short supply in the short term. How will the epidemic affect China’s economy? What is the impact on manufacturing? Will the automation industry go further down in 2020? Let’s take a look at Rui Industry’s detailed analysis of these issues that everyone is concerned about.

NO.1 Analysis of the overall impact on China’s economy

● The most meaningful one is the impact of SARS in 2003 on China’s economy. The GDP of that year dropped significantly in the second quarter, but the impact was very short-lived in the environment of rapid economic growth when China had just joined the WTO.

(Data source: National Bureau of Statistics)

● The current situation is very different from that in 2003. On the one hand, China’s total GDP and economic strength are not the same as those at the beginning; on the other hand, due to the Sino-US trade war and the electronics industry , The impact of the industrial cycle of the automobile industry is quite severe. Therefore, judging the future economic trend will be more complicated. The author believes that the most critical factor is whether the epidemic can be effectively controlled in a short period of time. According to the current situation of China’s economic development, the strong thrust of 5G, semiconductors, new energy vehicles, etc., and the end of the Sino-US trade war, if the epidemic can be controlled in a short period of time, it is a high probability that China’s economic situation will be better than last year.

NO.2 The impact of the epidemic on the manufacturing industry

● The epidemic also has a great impact on China’s manufacturing industry. Central China, centered in Wuhan, Hubei Province, has always been one of the centers of China’s manufacturing industry. Even if the epidemic is brought under control in the near future, the manufacturing industries in Hubei and Wuhan will not be able to recover in the short term due to the combined impact of personnel isolation, extended holidays, traffic control and other factors. The author summarizes the situation of the industries that are more affected as follows:

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● Nevertheless, the epidemic will have a favorable impact on a few industries, especially those related to medical supplies. From a national perspective, the medical mask and related protective equipment industries are the industries that benefit most directly. Among them, production enterprises in Zhejiang Province, Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Henan Province, Hebei Province and Guangdong Province are relatively concentrated. From the perspective of automation, a major change in demand and supply in the short term is just one of the application scenarios of intelligent manufacturing. Therefore, 2020 is the best time to promote digitalization to these enterprises.

National distribution map of medical masks and protective equipment enterprises

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● In addition, anti-coronavirus drugs are also under intensive development. According to the author’s current information, the country’s major medical virus research institutes are cooperating with some well-known pharmaceutical companies to develop related drugs. Once the relevant formulations are developed and tested, they will be mass-produced in a short period of time. The following companies are worthy of recent attention:

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● The pharmaceutical equipment industry is also one of the beneficiary industries. Among all kinds of medical equipment, pharmaceutical packaging equipment has the largest sales volume and the most manufacturers. The following table analyzes the situation of pharmaceutical packaging equipment and related companies:

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● In addition to pharmaceutical-related industries, a new round of hospital construction is also essential. Through this epidemic, fever clinics for medium and large-scale pharmaceuticals have been independently established, and various isolation measures for fever wards will be systematically put on the agenda. This will drive the rapid development of related industries, such as the HV/AC industry.

NO.3 Forecast of the automation market in 2020

● First of all, everyone should understand that before this epidemic, in 2019, affected by the Sino-US trade war, the electronics industry, and the automobile industry cycle, the growth rate of most products in the automation market did not meet expectations or showed negative growth. Some well-known foreign companies such as Siemens and GE have laid off employees. Some companies that have maintained rapid growth in previous years, such as Inovance, have also experienced a sharp drop in growth rate in 2019. Since 2020, we will catch up with such an epidemic again, and the prospects of the automation market are not optimistic. However, the author believes that under such strict and strong measures across the country, it is a high probability event that the epidemic will be quickly controlled, so the impact on the market for the whole year is relatively limited. Moreover, with the large-scale application of 5G in China this year and the strong promotion of electric vehicles, semiconductors and other industries to the Chinese economy, the situation in the automation market will be better than last year.

■ The growth rate forecast of major products is as follows:

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● The downstream application industries of automation are extensive, basically involving all walks of life, and the development of different industries is not the same. The figure below shows the growth of automation products in various industries predicted by MIR in 2020.

■ Equipment manufacturing industry:

Growth rate of automation products in various equipment manufacturing industries

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● As can be seen from the above figure, due to the impact of the overall manufacturing economic downturn, most industries will still experience negative growth in 2020, but the semiconductor industry and the lithium battery industry, which are industries favored by national policies, will still grow rapidly in 2020 , and the pharmaceutical industry, logistics industry, etc., are the beneficiary industries of this epidemic. The electronics industry and LCD industry will grow rapidly in 2020 with the popularization of 5G mobile phones.

■ End User Industry:

Growth rate of automation products by end-user industry

(Data source: MIR Databank)

● See the above chart for the industry growth forecast of end users. Industries such as metallurgy and chemical industry will maintain a good growth trend in 2019, while the growth of the transportation industry will decline sharply due to the impact of the epidemic. In addition, the auto industry fell into a trough in 2019. MIR expects that in 2020, with the pull of new energy vehicles and the conclusion of a new Sino-US trade agreement, the situation of the entire auto industry will improve.

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Partnering with Machine Learning Software Leader to Simplify Edge AI Design Using 32-bit MCUs

Microchip Technology Inc. recently announced that it has reached cooperation with Cartesiam, Edge Impulse and Motion Gestures to use Arm Cortex-based 32-bit microcontrollers and Microprocessors simplify deploying machine learning at the edge. By interfacing the above partners’ software and solutions into its design environment, Microchip will be the only company in the industry to support customers in every aspect of an artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) project, including data collection, model training and interface implementation. stage company.

Fanie Duvenhage, vice president of Microchip’s Human Interface and Touch Products Division, said:

Adoption of our 32-bit MCUs in edge AI applications is growing rapidly, and design has never been more difficult for embedded system developers. Testing the solution will also be very easy with ML evaluation kits including EV18H79A or EV45Y33A etc.

About partner products

Founded in 2016, Cartesiam is a software publisher focusing on single-chip artificial intelligence development tools. Cartesiam’s development environment, NanoEdge AI™ Studio, has been patented and can help embedded developers quickly develop MCU-specific machine learning libraries without any prior knowledge of artificial intelligence. Devices based on Cartesiam’s technology are being produced by hundreds of manufacturers around the world.

Edge Impulse is an end-to-end developer platform for embedded machine learning that enables companies in the industrial, commercial and wearable markets to develop smart devices. The platform provides developers with data set collection, digital signal processing (DSP) and machine learning algorithms, software testing, and efficient interface code generation capabilities across multiple sensor, audio, and vision applications at no cost to developers. Developers can get to work in minutes thanks to Microchip’s MPLAB X integrated development environment and evaluation kit support.

Founded in 2017, Motion Gestures is an AI-based embedded gesture recognition software provider that provides powerful gesture recognition capabilities for different sensors including touch, motion (such as inertial measurement unit) and vision. Unlike conventional solutions, the company’s platform does not require collecting training data or writing code for gesture models, but uses advanced machine learning algorithms. As a result, development time and costs for gesture recognition software are reduced by 90%, while recognition accuracy increases to nearly 100%.

Microchip’s machine learning development tools include:

EV18H79A: SAMD21 Machine Learning Evaluation Kit with TDK 6-Axis MEMS

EV45Y33A: SAMD21 Machine Learning Evaluation Kit with BOSCH Inertial Measurement Unit

SAMC21 XPlained Pro Evaluation Kit (ATSAMC21-XPRO), and QT8 XPlained Pro Expansion Kit (AC164161): Can be used to evaluate the Motion Gestures solution

VectorBlox Accelerator Software Development Kit (SDK): Helps Developers Create Low Power, Small Form Factor AI/ML Applications on Microchip’s PolarFire™ FPGAs

Shijian provides free samples, reference designs and technical guidance, with successful cases.

The original text is transferred from Microchip Microchip

About Shijian

The leading authorized distributor of components in the Asia-Pacific region

Excelpoint is a complete solution provider, providing high-quality components, engineering design for Asian electronics manufacturers, including original equipment manufacturers (OEM), original design manufacturers (ODM) and Electronic manufacturing service providers (EMS) and supply chain management services.

Shijian is a listed company on the main board of Singapore with a history of more than 30 years. Shijian China is headquartered in Hong Kong, and currently has more than ten branches and offices in China, covering major large and medium-sized cities in China. With a professional R&D team, top field application support and rich market experience, Shijian enjoys a leading position in the industry in China.

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Explain in detail the high-efficiency heat dissipation MOSFET top heat dissipation package

[Guide]Most MOSFETs in power applications are surface mount devices (SMD), including packages such as SO8FL, u8FL, and LFPAK. These SMDs are often chosen for their good power capabilities, while being small in size, which facilitates a more compact solution. Although these devices have good power capabilities, sometimes the heat dissipation is not ideal.

Since the leadframe of the device (including the exposed drain pad) is soldered directly to the copper area, this causes heat to travel primarily through the PCB. The rest of the device is enclosed in the plastic encapsulant and can only dissipate heat through air convection. Therefore, the heat transfer efficiency depends largely on the characteristics of the circuit board: the area size, number of layers, thickness and layout of the copper clad. This happens regardless of whether the board is mounted to the heatsink or not. Usually the maximum power capability of the device is not optimal because the PCB generally does not have high thermal conductivity and thermal mass. To solve this problem and further reduce the size of the application, a new MOSFET package has been developed in which the lead frame (drain) of the MOSFET is exposed on the top of the package (as shown in Figure 1 for example).

Figure 1. Top thermal package

Layout advantage of top cooling

While traditional power SMDs are good for miniaturized solutions, they require that no other components be placed below them on the back of the board due to thermal considerations. Some space on the board could not be used, resulting in a larger overall size of the final board. Top-cooled devices can get around this problem: the heat is dissipated through the top of the device. In this way, the board position under the MOSFET can be used to place components.

This space can be used to arrange the following components (but not limited to):

● Power devices

● Gate drive circuit

● Supporting components (capacitors, buffers, etc.)

This, in turn, reduces board size and reduces paths for gate drive signals, resulting in a more ideal solution.

Figure 2. PCB component space

In addition to providing more layout space, top-cooled devices also reduce thermal overlap compared to standard SMD devices. Most of the heat dissipation from the top cooling package goes directly into the heat sink, so the PCB experiences less heat. Helps reduce the operating temperature of surrounding devices.

Thermal Performance Benefits of Top Cooling

Unlike traditional surface-mount MOSFETs, the top-cooled package allows the heat sink to be attached directly to the device’s lead frame. Since metals have high thermal conductivity, heat sink materials are usually metals. For example most heat sinks are made of aluminum and have a thermal conductivity between 100-210 W/mk. This way of dissipating heat through high thermal conductivity materials greatly reduces thermal resistance compared to the conventional way of dissipating heat through the PCB. Thermal conductivity and material size are key factors in determining thermal resistance. The lower the thermal resistance, the better the thermal response.

Rθ = absolute thermal resistance

Δx = thickness of material parallel to heat flow

A = cross-sectional area perpendicular to heat flow

k = thermal conductivity

In addition to improving thermal conductivity, heat sinks also provide greater thermal mass – which helps avoid saturation, or provides a larger thermal time constant. This is because the dimensions of the top-mounted radiator can vary. Thermal mass or heat capacity is proportional to a given temperature change for a given amount of thermal energy input.

Cth = heat capacity, J/K

Q = thermal energy, J

ΔT = temperature change, K

PCBs tend to have different layouts and lower copper thickness, resulting in lower thermal mass (heat capacity) and poor heat spread. All of these factors make standard surface mount MOSFETs less than optimal thermal response when used. In theory, a top-cooled package has the advantage of dissipating heat directly from a high thermal mass, high thermal conductivity source, so its thermal response (Zth (C°/W)) will be better. In the case of a certain junction temperature rise, better thermal response will support higher power input. Thus, for the same MOSFET chip, a chip in a top-cooled package will have higher current and power capabilities than a chip in a standard SMD package.

Figure 3. Thermal path for top-cooled package (top) and SO8FL package (bottom)

Test Setup for Thermal Performance Comparison

To demonstrate and validate the thermal performance benefits of top cooling, tests were performed comparing the die temperature rise and thermal response of TCPAK57 and SO8FL devices under the same thermal boundary conditions. For a valid comparison, both devices were tested under the same electrical conditions and thermal boundaries. The difference is that the heatsink for the TCPAK57 is mounted above the device, while the heatsink for the SO8FL device is mounted on the bottom of the PCB, directly below the MOSFET area (Figure 3). This is a reproduction of how the device is used in a field application. Different thicknesses of thermal interface material (TIM) were also used during testing to verify which device packages could be optimized with different thermal boundaries. The overall test works as follows: Apply a fixed current (and therefore constant power) to both devices and monitor the change in junction temperature to see which device performs better.

Figure 4. Application Setup for Each Device

Component Selection and PCB Layout

In terms of device selection, the MOSFETs in each package have the same die size and use the same technology. This is to ensure that each device has the same power dissipation for a given current and to make the thermal response consistent at the package level. This way, we can be confident that the measured thermal response differences are due to package differences. For these reasons, we chose to use TCPAK57 and SO8FL. They come in slightly different clip and leadframe designs, one leaded (TCPAK57) and one leadless (SO8FL). It should be noted that these differences are small and do not have a large impact on the steady-state thermal response, so they can be ignored. After the parameters are given, the selected devices are as follows:



To further ensure that all other thermal boundaries remain equivalent, we designed two identical PCBs to house either the SO8FL package or the TCPAK57 package. The PCB is designed as a 4-layer board with 1 oz copper per layer. The dimensions are 122mm x 87mm. The SO8FL board does not have thermal vias connecting the drain pad to other conductive layers of the board (which is not optimal for heat dissipation); it can be used as the worst case case for heat dissipation in this comparison setup.

Figure 5. Each layer of the PCB

(Layer 1 is shown on the upper left, Layer 2 is shown on the upper right,

Layer 3 is shown on the lower left, and layer 4 is shown on the lower right)

Heat spreaders and thermal interface materials (TIMs)

The heatsink used in the tests was aluminum and specifically designed to be mounted to the PCB. The 107mm x 144mm heatsink is liquid cooled with a 35mm x 38mm cooling area directly under the MOSFET locations. The liquid that passes through the radiator is water. Water is the commonly used coolant in field applications. For all test scenarios, the flow rate was set to a fixed value of 0.5 gpm. The water provides additional thermal capacity, transferring heat from the heat sink to the water supply and helping to cool the device.

Figure 6. Application settings

To better facilitate heat dissipation across the MOSFET interface, a thermal gap filler should be used. This helps to fill in possible imperfections in the interface surface. Air is a poor conductor of heat, and any air gap increases thermal resistance. The TIM used in the tests was Bergquist 4500CVO caulk, which has a thermal conductivity of 4.5 W/mK. Several different thicknesses of this TIM were used to demonstrate the possibility of thermal response optimization. The fixed thickness is achieved by precision spacers used between the circuit board and heatsink. The target thickness used was:

● ~200 µm

● ~700 µm

Test circuit and heating/measurement method

The chosen on-board circuit configuration is a half-bridge setup as it represents a common field application. The proximity of the two devices to each other also accurately reflects the field layout, as shorter traces help reduce parasitics. This plays a role in the thermal response due to the thermal overlap between the devices.

To enable associated heating at lower current values, the current is passed through the body diode of the MOSFET. To ensure this is always the case, short the gate to source pins. The thermal response of a given device is obtained by heating the half-bridge FETs until a steady-state junction temperature (no rise in temperature), then monitoring the source with a small 10 mA signal source as the junction temperature returns to the cool-state temperature Drain voltage (Vsd). The time required to reach thermal steady state during heating is equal to the time to return to the de-energized state. The Vsd of the body diode is linear with the junction temperature, so it can be related to ΔTj using a constant (mV/C°) ratio (determined by characterization of each device). The ΔTj for the entire cooling period is then divided by the power dissipation at the end of the heating phase to obtain the thermal response (Zth) for a given system.

The 2 A supply, the 10 mA supply and the measurement of Vsd are all handled by the T3ster. The T3ster is a commercially available test device designed to monitor thermal response. It calculates the thermal response using the method mentioned earlier.

Figure 7. Circuit Diagram

Thermal comparison results

The thermal response results for each device were measured under two conditions:

● 200 μm TIM

● 700 μm TIM

The purpose of these two measurements is to determine which package has a better thermal response in a given system under control, and which device’s thermal response can be optimized by external cooling methods. It is important to note that these results are not applicable to all applications but are specific to the mentioned thermal boundary.

Package comparison using 200 μm TIM mounted to heat sink

For the first test run, each device was mounted on a water-cooled heat sink using a 200 μm TIM. Each device receives a 2 A pulse until steady state. T3ster monitors Vsd during cooling and correlates it back to the system’s thermal response curve. The steady-state thermal response value of the top cooling is ~4.13 C°/W, while that of SO8FL is ~25.27 C°/W. This large difference is in line with expected results, since the top thermal package is mounted directly to a high thermal conductivity, large thermal capacity heat sink for good heat spread. For SO8FL, due to the poor thermal conductivity of the PCB, the thermal conductivity is poor.

To help understand how to take advantage of these advantages in an application, thermal response values ​​can be related to the amount of power each device can handle. The power required to increase Tj from a coolant temperature of 23 C° to a maximum operating temperature of 175 C° is calculated as follows:

NOTE: This power difference is to be expected in this particular thermal system.

In this thermal system, the top cooling unit can handle 6 times the amount of power than the SO8FL. In field applications, this can be exploited in several different ways. Here are some of its advantages:

● When the required current is constant, a smaller heatsink can be used compared to SO8FL due to the increased power capability. Thereby possible cost savings.

● For switch-mode power supply applications, the switching frequency can be increased while maintaining a similar thermal margin.

● Can be used in higher power applications not originally suitable for SO8FL.

● When the chip size is constant, the top cooling device will have a higher safety margin than SO8FL, and the operating temperature will be lower under a given current demand.

Figure 8. Thermal response curve using 200 μm TIM

Figure 9. Temperature profile using 200 μm TIM

Package comparison using 700 μm TIM mounted to heat sink

Another test run was performed with a TIM thickness of 700 μm. This is to compare the change in thermal response with the 200 μm TIM test to verify the effect of the external cooling method on each package. This test operation yielded the following thermal response results: 6.51 C°/W for the top heat sink and 25.57 C°/W for the SO8FL. For top cooling, the difference between the two TIM operations is 2.38 C°/W, while the difference for SO8FL is 0.3 C°/W. This means that this external heat dissipation method has a large impact on the top cooling device and little impact on the SO8FL. This is also expected since the thermal response of the top cooling device is dominated by the thermal resistance of the TIM layer. TIMs have low thermal conductivity compared to heat sinks. Therefore, as the thickness increases, the thermal resistance increases, resulting in a higher Rth.

SO8FL TIM changes happen between the board and the heatsink. Its device heat must travel through the board to reach the TIM and heat sink, so thickness variations have little effect on the thermal resistance of the primary heat path. Therefore, the variation in thermal response is small.

These variations in thermal response due to variations in TIM thickness demonstrate the overall advantage of top-cooled packaging. The TCPAK57 has an exposed lead frame on top of the package, allowing better control of the thermal resistance of the heat path. This feature can be exploited to optimize thermal response for specific applications and cooling methods. This in turn provides a more controllable and beneficial power capability. Depending on the PCB characteristics, SO8FL and similar SMD devices are difficult to dissipate heat through the board on which they are placed. This is a non-controllable factor because there are many other variables in PCB design to consider besides heat dissipation.

Figure 10. Temperature profile using a 700 μm TIM

Figure 11. Temperature profile using a 700 μm TIM


The top-cooled package avoids heat dissipation through the PCB, shortening the heat path from the chip to the heat sink, thereby reducing the thermal resistance of the device. Thermal resistance is directly related to heat sink and thermal interface material properties. Low thermal resistance can bring many application advantages, such as:

● For a certain amount of current required, a smaller top cooling device can be used compared to standard SMD due to the increased power capability. In turn, this could lead to cost savings.

● For switch-mode power supply applications, the switching frequency can be increased while maintaining a similar thermal margin.

● Can be used in higher power applications where standard SMDs would otherwise not be suitable.

● When the chip size is constant, the top cooling device will have a higher safety margin than the equivalent SMD device, and the operating temperature will be lower under the given current demand.

Stronger thermal response optimization capabilities. This is accomplished by varying the thermal interface material and/or thickness. The thinner and/or better thermal conductivity the TIM, the lower the thermal response. Thermal response can also be changed by changing heat sink characteristics.

Top-cooled packaging reduces heat spread through the PCB, which in turn reduces thermal overlap between devices.

The top heat dissipation makes it unnecessary to connect the heat sink to the back of the PCB, so the components on the PCB can be arranged more compactly.

The Links:   6MBI100S-120-02 CM300DU-24NFH

An easier way to design GaN-based power systems: Comparing integrated driver offerings on the market

Gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) offer power system designers an exciting new option. GaN HEMTs enable them to significantly reduce switching losses and improve power efficiency compared to silicon MOSFETs, and support higher switching frequencies, reducing system size and weight.

By Vito Prezioso Field Applications Engineer, Power Specialists, Future Electronics (Nordic)

Gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) offer power system designers an exciting new option. GaN HEMTs enable them to significantly reduce switching losses and improve power efficiency compared to silicon MOSFETs, and support higher switching frequencies, reducing system size and weight.

But superior performance doesn’t come without a price: GaN HEMTs are harder to drive than silicon MOSFETs. Silicon MOSFETs require a simple +10 V drive voltage and can handle transients up to 20 V without risk of damage, while GaN HEMTs typically only accept a maximum gate drive voltage of +6 V and specify a +5 V optimum gate drive voltage. Shutdown conditions must also be carefully managed, some HEMTs require a negative drive voltage to ensure that the device does not turn on unexpectedly. Therefore, GaN HEMTs require more tightly controlled gate driver operation than silicon MOSFETs.

This makes an integrated system-in-package (SiP) combining a HEMT and a gate driver very attractive: HEMT manufacturers can choose the best driver for the HEMT. In an integrated SiP, the manufacturer will also implement an optimized gate drive circuit. The main benefit of this optimized circuit is that performance and reliability are unaffected by parasitic inductance, which is apt to occur in circuits built with discrete components.

Figure 1 shows where the parasitic inductance occurs:

・ LS1 is the parasitic inductance caused by the gate trace, which connects the drive pin of the gate driver to the gate of the transistor through a resistor
・ LS3 is the inductance generated by the feedback loop that connects the source pin of the transistor to the COM pin of the gate driver
・ LS2 is the stray inductance of the source branch, which also affects the power loop

Figure 1: Simplified gate driver circuit showing sources of parasitic inductance

Parasitic inductance combined with Miller capacitance at fast switching transitions can cause ringing and overshoot or undershoot voltage spikes at the gate. At best, this just creates EMI and reduces efficiency; at worst, it actually damages the transistor.

In general, wider traces and shorter gate drive loops are better. By combining the driver and transistor in one package, the gate-source loop is kept very short, resulting in much lower parasitic inductance than circuits with discrete HEMTs and drivers.

In fact, the best integrated devices have extremely low stray inductance in the gate drive loop. This virtually eliminates gate-source voltage ringing and has the following effects:

・Reduces the stress on the gate structure, thereby improving the reliability of HEMTs
・ Reduce the damping resistance at the output of the driver. Faster switching can be achieved, resulting in lower switching losses.

The integrated device also provides low stray inductance in the power loop, which greatly reduces drain-source voltage spikes. in order to fulfill:

・ Lower switching loss
・ Low EMI
・ Lower drain-source voltage stress, higher reliability

Most importantly, integrated devices reduce component count and board space. Some of the 650 V, 150 mΩ HEMTs that designers can find in the market today come in packages measuring 8 mm x 8 mm. In application, they require discrete gate drivers and gate drive resistors. In contrast, Infineon’s IGI60F1414A1L, a CoolGaN™ integrated power stage (IPS) device that combines a half-bridge power stage consisting of two 600 V/140 mΩ enhancement-mode GaN switches with dedicated gate drivers, Packaged in a thermally enhanced 8 mm x 8 mm QFN-28 package.

Different products for different design requirements

These advantages, including easier design implementation, lower parasitic inductance, and smaller board footprint, have prompted all major GaN HEMT manufacturers to start building integrated device portfolios while offering discrete HEMTs and GaN drivers.

But some trade-offs are related to the use of integrated devices. The first is that the customer’s production is more closely tied to the manufacturer and device: Unlike discrete HEMTs and discrete drivers, which in many cases have industry-standard packages, integrated drivers may have fewer pin- or package-compatible alternatives.

Beyond that, integration also requires manufacturers to decide how to compromise and meet the needs of different types of applications. This means that there are important differences between integrated GaN products on the market today.

The most obvious product differences in the market are:

・ Is it optimized for a specific topology
・ Does the device provide a means of adjusting operation to minimize electromagnetic emissions at the expense of efficiency
・In addition to the driver and HEMT, additional functions integrated in the device

Topology-specific integrated GaN products

With the introduction of the MasterGaN family, STMicroelectronics occupies a unique position in the market for integrated GaN products. This is because these GaN SiPs are the first to feature integrated half-bridges in either symmetrical or asymmetrical configurations, paired with optimized 600 V half-bridge drivers.

STMicroelectronics has created a MasterGaN product family consisting of five series to meet the various topologies used by most customers and the power rating range required by their applications. Therefore, as shown in Figure 2, the MasterGaN2 and MasterGaN3 products are only used in active-clamp flyback converters because this topology requires the low-side on-resistance to be lower than the high-side on-resistance. STMicroelectronics’ new reference design EVLONE65W demonstrates how much space can be saved when using MasterGaN2 with ST-ONE’s all-in-one digital power controller. EVLONE65W is a 65W USB Power Delivery 3.1 charger board based on Active Clamp Flyback topology. The EVLONE65W measures 5.8 cm x 3.2 cm x 2.0 cm and can achieve a high power density of 30 W/in3.

Figure 2: STMicroelectronics launched the industry’s first integrated GaN half-bridge product MasterGaN series

For LLC resonant topologies, the MasterGaN1, MasterGaN4 and MasterGaN5 families offer symmetrical configurations supporting power ratings up to 400 W.

In fact, Future Electronics has developed a feature-rich development platform called GaNSTar that can drive loads up to 500 W using MasterGaN1. GaNSTar implements a 96% efficient LLC resonant DC-DC converter. It benefits from a precise digital control scheme running on the board’s STM32G4 microcontroller and an exemplary thermal design.

The MasterGaN product is then optimized for one of two soft-switching topologies. In contrast, integrated GaN devices from other important suppliers of GaN switches, such as ON semiconductor‘s 650 V integrated driver GaN product to be released by the end of 2022, and Infineon’s IGI60F1414A1L CoolGaN IPS device, can handle hard switching and apply in any application topology. For example, an evaluation board that ON semiconductor is developing implements a converter design that includes a 500 W totem-pole power factor correction converter, a 65 W flyback converter, and a 300 W LLC converter.

Managing EMI and Efficiency Tradeoffs

On the other hand, however, Infineon’s CoolGaN IPS family is different from all other integrated GaN devices on the market. These Infineon devices enable the power system designer to access the gate of the transistor and configure the gate drive resistor/capacitor to adjust the dV/dt ratio as shown in Figure 3. This unique feature enables designers to manage the balance between switching losses, electromagnetic emissions, and overshoot, which is valuable in applications that are highly sensitive to EMI. However, there is a tradeoff: adding an optional external resistor lengthens the gate-source loop, which, as mentioned above, increases parasitic inductance.

Figure 3: External resistors control the dV/dt ratio in CoolGaN IPS devices

Like ON Semiconductor, Infineon has a range of reference board designs based on the CoolGaN IPS family, including a 65 W quasi-resonant flyback converter and a 65 W active clamp flyback converter for high-density power adapters.

Deeper integration to reduce component count and board space

The integration of an optimized driver with its GaN HEMT provides partial value as it reduces development time and effort. However, as Power Integrations demonstrates, this advantage extends beyond the integration of drives. As its name suggests, Power Integrations specializes in multifunctional products. For example, the InnoSwitch™3 and InnoSwitch4 low-power AC-DC converters are flyback controllers that integrate PowiGaN™ GaN transistors, a synchronous rectifier controller, and a FluxLink isolated feedback link. These devices minimize the length of the gate-source loop, enabling designers to achieve very compact and efficient designs at power levels up to 110 W.

Power Integrations also offers the HiperPFS-5, a power factor correction controller with an integrated 750 V PowiGaN GaN switch.

An effective way to evaluate Power Integrations products is to use Future Electronics’ TobogGaN power board, as shown in Figure 4. This is a 60 W AC-DC converter based on the InnoSwitch3-Pro integrated flyback controller module, which includes a PowiGaN GaN switch on the primary side. The TobogGaN system operates from a universal mains input with up to 92% efficiency at full load and provides a programmable output between 5 V and 20 V.

Figure 4: Future Electronics’ TobogGaN board is a flyback converter rated up to 60 W

Power Integrations doesn’t have this part of the market to itself: Also notable is STMicroelectronics’ VIPerGaN offering. The VIPerGaN50 is a quasi-resonant flyback controller paired with a GaN power switch. It operates from mains input and supports loads up to 50 W. ST also offers the VIPerGaN65 rated at 65 W and the VIPerGaN100 rated at 100 W.

Market Response to Demand Stimulus

The diversity of integrated GaN drivers reflects manufacturers trying to keep their finger on the pulse of the market: as demand for GaN products grows rapidly from a low base, it is currently uncertain whether customers will prioritize efficiency and minimization of parasitic inductance over free control of dV/ dt rate.

To be sure, the market will continue to grow rapidly, and GaN device manufacturers are investing heavily in development and production to meet this demand. Happily, customers can look forward to a growing selection of products to optimize their high-efficiency, high-density GaN-based power system designs.

development kit

Supported components: MasterGaN1
Board Type: GaNSTar from Future Electronics

This 96% efficient LLC resonant DC-DC converter benefits from a precise digital control scheme running on STMicroelectronics’ STM32G4 microcontroller.

Supported components: InnoSwitch3-Pro
Board type: TobogGaN from Future Electronics

This 60 W AC-DC converter is based on the Power Integrations InnoSwitch3-Pro integrated flyback controller module. The TobogGaN system operates from a universal mains input with up to 92% efficiency at full load and provides a programmable output between 5 V and 20 V.

The Links:   LQ084V1DG22 NL8060BC31-17D

Tan Xiaosheng: Business and Innovation in China’s Cybersecurity

“In an ideal world, the value of cybersecurity depends on the value of the assets being protected. During digital transformation, data becomes an asset with near-infinite value, but in reality the logic of the market is not like that.”

“There is a cost for the user layer to protect network security. In the event of an accident, he has a loss. There is a consideration between the cost and the loss. This consideration is his responsibility.”

“What stages will a network security company go through when it develops? The typical four stages are point-line-surface-body.”

“How big is the market size of the network security industry? We believe that the scientific statistical dimension is from the perspective of user budget. If we look at the cost of users, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Beijing, Jiangsu, and Fujian have the largest investment in network security in five economically developed regions. .”

——Tan Xiaosheng

On the afternoon of July 27th, Tan Xiaosheng, Chairman of Beijing Cyber ​​Yingjie Technology Co., Ltd. and former 360 Technology President, delivered a keynote speech on “Business and Innovation in China’s Cyber ​​Security” at the 9th ISC2021 Internet Security Conference.

  Full text of the speech

First of all, I am very happy to be back on the ISC stage after a lapse of two years, and I am here to report to you what I have been doing in the past two years.

First, Zhengqi College (renamed as “Zhengqi Security Entrepreneurship Camp” in the future) will provide training for cybersecurity entrepreneurs; secondly, I have acquired the cybersecurity industry research institute Shushuo Security. I believe many of you have subscribed to Shushuo Security. Official account; thirdly, I started to make some investments in network security. I hope to form a small closed loop of industrial research, entrepreneurial training and investment. Today, I will share with you some of the research results of the past two years.

As we all know, the recent period of time may be the best period for China’s cybersecurity industry in more than 20 years. In the last month, I heard that many friends have successfully raised funds or are in the process of raising funds. How much has the company’s valuation increased? How much has the performance improved in half a year?

Last week, I attended two conferences held by students from Zhengqi College, one was the first DevSecOps conference of Hangjing Security, and the other was the conference of Xinglan Technology API Security. We can see that there are more and more new terms in network security. , but from the perspective of industry research, we need to find out the laws behind this.

The structure and development law of network security industry

What stage is China’s cybersecurity industry in now? The answer is in the process of changing from a two-dimensional industrial structure to a multi-dimensional industrial structure. The two-dimensional structure means that in the past ten years, network security has been divided into six basic security areas, including terminal security, network security, application security, identity and access management, physical security, and data security; plus security solutions Ten network security services including integration, security operation and maintenance, risk assessment, penetration testing, emergency response, red and blue confrontation, offensive and defensive training/shooting range, training certification, and security awareness education. The six major network security fields and the ten major network security services are eventually applied in various fields such as education, telecommunications, and government, forming an N×M matrix, which is a two-dimensional ecology.

Today, there have been several scenarios of cloud computing, big data, Internet of Things, mobile Internet, industrial Internet, artificial intelligence, etc., and the changes in the international situation have put Xinchuang on the agenda. more dimensions, even more than three. It can be seen that in the network security industry, various products are more and more subdivided. In this year’s digital security market panorama, the network security market has been divided into 13 major categories and 81 subcategories, and it is expected that there will be more classifications in the future.

Types and Development Laws of Cybersecurity Enterprises

What stages does a cybersecurity company go through? The typical four stages are “point-line-surface-body”.

a little. A network security start-up company is often produced by the founder relying on a certain technology or understanding of a certain problem to make a security product. This product may allow him to obtain a small tens of millions of sales revenue. This is a point-like company. . For example, Zero Trust has been very popular in the past two years. Start-up companies such as Yi Allianz and Shupeng have seized this opportunity and achieved tens of millions of income.

Second, the line. What should Dot-like companies do if they want to continue to develop and gain greater sales revenue? They are going to expand the product line. For example, Yuanjiang Shengbang did WAF in the early days, OEM for big manufacturers, then scanners, and now it is doing cyberspace asset surveying and mapping. It is a typical “point” to “line”, and now it is moving from “line” to “line” “Face” expansion. When a company goes from point to line, it can often achieve tens of millions or even hundreds of millions of sales revenue.

Three sides. If the company wants to go to the face, it needs to move from a product line to solve the problems of a certain type of users. For example, Zhongan Nebula and Meichuang, which are in the field of data security, are trying to gradually expand from the product “line” to the “surface”.

Fourth, the body. After a company reaches the “face”, it will often have several hundred million in sales revenue at this time. At this time, he has to go to a more difficult stage, from “face” to “body”. Qiming, NSFOCUS, Tianrongxin, and Qi Anxin are “body” companies. They often have a lot of products and services, which can cover users in multiple fields. The sales revenue of such companies in all fields and scenarios can be achieved. billions or more. However, the leap from face to body is very difficult. The only successful company in the past few years is Anheng, and the next step is AsiaInfo.

A company’s development stage, from point-line-surface-body, every step is life and death, and every step is a success in N companies.

The value of cybersecurity

The cyberspace market has always had the phenomenon of “two layers of ice and fire”. Industry people feel that it is quite bitter, but outsiders, especially some investors who are not familiar with this field, think this market is simply too good. Everyone can see that the general secretary also In high regard: “There is no national security without cybersecurity”.

In fact, looking at the market of network security calmly, there will be such a deviation. (Figure 1) This is the market space everyone imagines in the upper right corner. In imagination, the value of network security depends on the value of the protected assets. During digital transformation, data has become an asset, and its value is almost unlimited, but In fact, the logic of the market is not like this.

First of all, there is a cost for the user layer to protect network security. If an accident occurs, he will suffer a loss. There is a consideration between the cost and the loss, and this consideration is the responsibility to be assumed.

In the early years, there were many problems of data loss, and the losses after data leakage were also very heavy. I have encountered many such customer cases in 360 before. Now that the “Data Security Law” has been promulgated, if data loss is caused, it may have to bear a fine of tens of millions. At this time, users will be more willing to invest in security. A series of laws and regulations such as “Cyber ​​Security Law”, “Data Security Law”, “Personal Privacy Protection Law” will promote the network security market, so the actual market space is gradually moving towards the market space imagined in the upper right corner.

Network security itself has both commercial and military attributes. In the past period of time, the commercial attributes have played relatively well, and it is a relatively free competition market, and users will balance between input and output. However, with the changes in the international situation, the military attributes are becoming more and more important. Under the dominance of military attributes, users will invest more in security in order to obtain higher security. Compared with commercial attributes, it will appear regardless of the cost. This sounds like good news for the network security industry. But on another level, in the state of strong military industry, state-owned monopoly may become more serious. In the past two years, more and more security companies have actively accepted investment from state-owned enterprises, trying to put a red hat on themselves.

Cybersecurity Innovation

The theme of this conference is that network security needs new tactics and new frameworks. To sum up, innovation is needed. What is innovation? Invention is not necessarily innovation, and entrepreneurship is not necessarily innovation. Creating new value for customers, turning unmet and potential needs into opportunities, and creating new things that satisfy users is called innovation.

Network security innovation can be roughly divided into two categories: one is to solve a problem that has not been solved. This kind of innovation is often iterative innovation, and what changes is the stock market. For example, vulnerability management is a problem that has not been solved very well. We can tell users to patch when they find a vulnerability, but the reality is that it is impossible to find all the vulnerabilities. The patch cannot be installed in the scenario. Vulcan, one of the top 10 innovation sandboxes at last year’s RSA Conference, is engaged in intelligent vulnerability management, and provides vulnerability repair and mitigation strategies through community-based operations.

The second kind of innovation is to solve an unsolved problem. We call it breakthrough innovation. For example, in the fields of intelligent networked vehicle security, industrial Internet security, and data security, there are a lot of breakthrough innovation opportunities. Another example is homomorphic computing, secure multi-party computing, and federated computing, which are trying to solve the contradiction between privacy protection and the convenience and efficiency brought by big data.

We divide the problem into new problems and old problems, and divide the methods of solving problems into new methods and old methods, forming a 2×2 matrix. New problems are solved with old methods. For example, in industrial control scenarios, we use industrial control firewalls, industrial control IPS, and IDS to solve industrial control security problems. This is to solve new problems with old methods. Using artificial intelligence and big data technology to solve some problems in the industrial Internet belongs to solving new problems with new methods. Using artificial intelligence and big data to solve intrusion detection problems belongs to solving old problems with new methods. From the market analysis, we can see that the IPS and IDS market is shrinking and the number of suppliers is decreasing, but the new NTA equipment and advanced threat detection equipment based on big data and artificial intelligence have risen very fast in the past two years. fast.

We give it a total of six categories:

1. Policy-driven innovation. In the past few years, the market has been driven by a large number of policies and regulations. The government has issued various laws and regulations, forcing governments at all levels, large state-owned enterprises, and private enterprises to comply with regulations. Why can such things as firewalls sell so much? Because It is listed as an essential product in compliance. In recent years, the promotion of compliance to the market is still the first driving force.

2. Scenario-driven innovation. For example, new applications generated by new user scenarios such as today’s cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of Things are also the driving force for innovation.

3. Business-driven innovation. Changes in business forms such as Internet fraud, cybercrime, and car networking security will also drive innovation.

4. Innovation of safety concept. For example, innovations brought by new offensive and defensive ideas such as Zero Trust, DevSecOps, and ATT&CK will transform a number of network security products or solutions.

5. Technological innovation. For example, the use of big data, artificial intelligence and other technologies to solve the problem of enterprise security will bring about innovations in upgrading and transformation of products in the entire industrial chain.

6. Model innovation. It mainly refers to changes in service models. From the annual reports of Sangfor, Qiming, NSFOCUS, and Tianrongxin, it can be seen that their network security services are all strengthened. I understand that there are companies with very small revenue scales such as cybersecurity managed services, MDR (managed services for detection and response), etc., but they are doing very well with gross margins. At present, network security talents are scarce, so obtaining the corresponding security capabilities through cloud-based security services is a very cost-effective thing that can meet the needs of users… Innovations brought about by security as a service, security operations, and security insurance, It is also an important part of industrial innovation.

Network Security Market Situation Analysis

Network security market data analysis is a service currently being done by Shushuo Security. We analyzed the data of millions of projects in the network security industry from 2016 to the present, and obtained some analysis conclusions, including where customers are and what customers generate. What is the order quantity. The number of customer orders generated by Beijing is the largest, and the number of customers in the southeast coast is the largest (this is directly related to economic development). In the past two years, the Central Region and the Western Region have been on the rise, which is what we can see from the data.

In terms of the number of transactions, the network security market has steadily increased in the past three years, and the trend has been steadily improving. We tracked that the network security orders in the first half of this year were very good. Except for a little less orders in May and June, the number of orders from January to April was much higher than in previous years.

The size of the network security market has always been a mystery, and the statistical results from different dimensions are different. We believe that the scientific statistical dimension is from the perspective of user budget. If we look at the cost of users, the five categories of Guangdong, Zhejiang, Beijing, Jiangsu, and Fujian are Regions with relatively developed economies invest the most in network security. Looking down at Shandong, Henan, Sichuan, Anhui, and Guangxi, the central and southwestern regions are relatively good. In terms of cities, Beishangguang is firmly in the first camp. Here, we can also see that Suzhou has a relatively developed economy, and the investment in network security is also very good.

The construction of network security has quarterly characteristics. The first quarter, especially February, has the lowest sales revenue, and everyone is busy with the New Year; National Day is also relatively low in October, but the overall trend is that it is steadily increasing every quarter. It shows that it is more than ten percent in the first quarter, more than 20 percent in the second quarter, and more than 30 percent in the third and fourth quarter. This is also in line with our experience. Everyone is in the network security industry. , Every year is the busiest at the end of the year, and December 31st is definitely the busiest day of the year.

From the hot words in the network market in 2020, we can see that in addition to the common words of “information security” and “network security”, “level protection”, “equal protection”, “level protection evaluation”, “equal protection evaluation” A few words are in the first camp. As of today, the wait-and-see evaluation has become a good starting point for the governance of the network security industry. In addition, the popularity of “security service” is similar to that of “waiting for guarantee evaluation”, indicating that security services have begun to be recognized by users, and they have also been verified from customer budgets, because this hot word is extracted from various bidding data. It shows that customer acceptance is supported by a budget behind it.

It’s a little surprising that “data security” is actually not very conspicuous in it. From the data of 2020, the actual orders of data security are not well reflected. Things related to “threat situational awareness” are the security monitoring and early warning platform, industrial information security situational awareness, etc., which have been well recognized; and the industrial Internet, industrial information situation, etc. are also relatively prominent positions, indicating that its rising speed is very fast. Quick, this picture refers to the area with a relatively large amount of rising. Data encryption, data management and control platforms, etc. are also areas that are rising rapidly.

The above is what I have reported to you in the past two years. I hope to provide some help for the development of the industry. Thank you!

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Intel invests in two more Chinese semiconductor startups

On May 14, according to foreign media reports, on Wednesday, local time, Intel Capital, a global investment agency under Intel, invested in two more Chinese semiconductor start-ups, namely ProPlus and Spectrum. Materials).

According to the data, Gelun Electronics is an Electronic design automation (EDA) software supplier, specializing in providing advanced device modeling and fast circuit simulation solutions. The company uses software to shorten the time between design and manufacture, increasing the speed of chip design and manufacturing efficiency, enabling the semiconductor industry to create more powerful and diverse products.

Perma Pure Materials is a supplier of high-purity specialty gases and materials for semiconductor manufacturing plants, with one of the largest germane production bases located in Quanzhou, Fujian.

Since its founding in 1991, Intel Capital has invested $12.9 billion in more than 1,582 companies around the world. Intel has said it will invest $300 million to $500 million in 2020 in technology companies focused on technologies such as artificial intelligence, intelligent edge and network transformation.

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What are the practical black technologies on pure electric vehicles

Pure electric vehicles, a model that represents a major trend in the future, many related trends of vehicles are the focus of people’s attention. When it comes to pure electric vehicles, many people associate them with synonyms such as intelligence and black technology. So on pure electric vehicles, what configurations are really called intelligent or black technology? It will be revealed to you below.


Intelligent vehicle system, which is what we often call the vehicle system. The common car-machine systems on pure electric vehicles have some intelligent attributes, such as multi-screen processing, online control of mobile APPs, and Internet-based related functions. Convenience has been greatly improved. Of course, it needs to be pointed out that many fuel vehicles now also have this kind of system, and the use experience will not be inferior to that of pure electric vehicles. This is a point that needs to be explained.

Intelligent driving assistance systems, in the early stage of the development of pure electric vehicles, will even be a big selling point. The fact that needs to be acknowledged is that pure electric vehicles are of positive significance for the popularization and promotion of intelligent driving assistance systems. The intelligent driving assistance systems of many pure electric vehicles are also quite intelligent, which can greatly reduce the driver’s fatigue under appropriate road conditions. degree. However, it is a pity that the intelligent driving assistance system is also equipped on many fuel vehicles.


In general, speaking of black technology in the true sense, at least for the current mass-produced pure electric vehicles, none of them can really surprise me.

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